Reading habits in the past

The shape of the text has influenced how, what and why we read. This is the first blog of the Rise of Literacy project, where we take you from papyri to universities, exploring literacy in Europe thanks to the digital …



Here be dragons

Dragons have played the role of bad guy in many a Western folk story or legend. They’ve been part of our literature and folklore as far back as we can remember (there’s one in Beowulf), and are still pervasive in …


Spain: José Ignacio Wert

Article by José Ignacio Wert Ortega, Spain’s Minister of Education, Culture and Sport: Towards 776, a monk called Beatus, perhaps the abbot of the San Toribio Monastery in Liébana, wrote a book titled Commentaries on the Apocalypse, which enjoyed extraordinary success over five …


Poland: Piotr Zuchowski

 Article by Piotr Zuchowski, Secretary of State, Ministry of Culture and National Heritage, Poland: One of the most valuable masterpieces of the Polish culture available through Europeana is the St. Florian Psalter dated at the turn of the 14th and 15th …


Czech Republic: Alena Hanáková

Arti­cle by Alena Hanáková, Minister of Culture of the Czech Republic: Velislav’s Bible (Velislai biblia picta): Czech “comics” from the mid 14th Century If there is a media that suits the current time best then it is neither a book nor …